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  • A Cell-Phone Microscope for Disease Detection

    In a twist on traditional smart-phone accessories, researchers have demonstrated fluorescent microscopy using a physical attachment to an ordinary cell phone. The contraptiona tube-like extension hooked onto the cell phone with a modified belt clipworks just like a traditional microscope, using a series of lenses that magnify blood or spit samples on a microscope slide. To detect TB, for example, a spit sample is infused with an inexpensive dye called auramine. The cell phone approach is very valuable for all parts of the world where [medical] resources are scarce, says Aydogan Ozcan, an assistant professor of electrical engineering at UCLA, who is working to develop a lens-free method for mobile cell imaging. You need a dark room, a mercury lamp, and a lot of training.

  • Ebola Virus Info - Social Media Emergency Management Platform

    Ebola Virus Info is a free and open Social Media for Emergency Management (SMEM) platform for sharing public health information and resources regarding the Ebola virus disease and response. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ebolavirusinfo. Currently focused on the 2014 West African outbreak. Also related are the Ebola Social Media Coalition (https://www.facebook.com/groups/ebolasocialmediacoalition/) for SMEM peer-to-peer collaboration.

  • uberculosis in the workplace: developing partnerships with garment industries in Bangladesh

    To implement and evaluate a public-private partnership model involving garment factories to reduce the tuberculosis (TB) burden in this workforce.

  • George Whitesides: A lab the size of a postage stamp

    George Whitesides' ingenious answer is a foolproof tool that can be manufactured at virtually zero cost. Traditional lab tests for disease diagnosis can be too expensive and cumbersome for the regions most in need. This talk was presented to a local audience at TEDxBoston 2009, an independent event.

  • Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS Among Adolescents: Current Status, Inequities, and Data Gaps

    Objectives: To examine levels and patterns of HIV prevalence, knowledge, sexual behavior, and coverage of selected HIV services among adolescents aged 10–19 years and highlight data gaps and challenges. Methods: Data were reviewed from Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS HIV estimates, nationally representative household surveys, behavioral surveillance surveys, and published literature. Results: A number of gaps exist for adolescent-specific HIVrelated data; however, important implications for programming can be drawn. Eighty-two percent of the estimated 2.1 million adolescents aged 10–19 years living with HIV in 2012 were in sub-Saharan Africa, and the majority of these (58%) were females. Comprehensive accurate knowledge about HIV, condom use, HIV testing, and antiretroviral treatment coverage remain low in most countries. Early sexual debut (sex before 15 years of age) is more common among adolescent girls than boys in low- and middle-income countries, consistent with early marriage and early childbirth in these countries. In low and concentrated epidemic countries, HIV prevalence is highest among key populations. Conclusions: Although the available HIV-related data on adolescents are limited, increased HIV vulnerability in the second decade of life is evident in the data. Improving data gathering, analysis, and reporting systems specific to adolescents is essential to monitoring progress and improving health outcomes for adolescents. More systematic and better quality disaggregated data are needed to understand differences by sex, age, geography, and socioeconomic factors and to address equity and human rights obligations, especially for key populations.

  • Case study of national tuberculosis programme implementation in Nepal

    The National TB Programme (NTP) of Nepal is generally regarded as highly successful both nationally and internationally. The programme has never previously been studied to identify the key success factors both from the perspective of technical TB control implementation and generic health service functions. The impact of Health Sector Reform (HSR) on programmes such as TB control is a live topic of debate internationally and also in Nepal where an HSR process is currently in the late stages of planning. From these two perspectives Nepal provided an ideal case study opportunity to examine the NTP in the climate of imminent HSR. This work was commissioned by the World Bank. Two short-term consultants (one national, one international) with considerable working experience of TB control in Nepal were contracted to undertake the review over a two-week period in late autumn 2002. Information was gathered by interviews, site visits, correspondence and the examination of relevant documentation (in English). The world literature on HSR and TB control was explored to provide a framework for the work. The document was peer-reviewed prior to publication

  • No Ceilings

    No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project is a Clinton Foundation initiative to inspire and advance the full participation of girls and women around the world. Even today, persistent stereotypes and barriers keep women from equal access, representation, and compensation in our communities and around the world. No Ceilings is convening global partners to build a data-driven evaluation of the progress girls and women have made and the challenges that remain to help chart the path forward to full participation.

  • Spectrum database

    Futures Institute's analytical tool developed to support policy decisions concerning public health. Spectrum includes modules for HIV estimates and projectors.

  • Private Enterprise for Public Health: Opportunities for Business to Improve Women & Children's Health

    This document highlights a broad range of specific and practical opportunities for improving the health of women and children while also generating value for private enterprise. We call this “shared value”. It provides information about the health needs of women and children in developing and emerging economies to help companies identify where they can have the greatest impact. Private Enterprise for Public Health aspires to catalyse a collective approach to creating transformative partnerships to help to save the lives of 16 million women and children. These partnerships need to be sustainable and scalable and include a broad range of stakeholders to make lasting progress. While this document provides practical opportunities for private enterprises to engage in improving women’s and children’s health, we expect the business community to behave responsibly and to respect human rights in general (and women’s and children’s rights in particular). We also expect private enterprises to uphold the principles of preventing harm and actively safeguarding women’s and children’s interests within their own operations in the marketplace and the community (a list of relevant principles is listed in the references section). This guide originated in collaboration with the Innovation Working Group (IWG) in support of Every Woman Every Child. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH), which hosts the secretariat of IWG, developed this guide with social impact consultants FSG, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF), supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). Contributors include Yegii global health experts.

  • Sickness and Treatment: A Situation Analysis among the Garments Workers

    Cross sectional study among 522 Bangladeshi garments workers as respondents. It was aimed to identify morbidity pattern, duration of illness among garments workers and also to determine treatment seeking behavior during illness. The socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were the points of investigations.

  • Barriers and Delays in Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Services: Does Gender Matter?

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem with known gender-related disparities. Authors reviewed the quantitative evidence for gender-related differences in accessing TB services from symptom onset to treatment initiation.

  • Global Tuberculosis Report 2015

    This is the twentieth global report on tuberculosis (TB) published by WHO in a series that started in 1997. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress in implementing and financing TB prevention, care, control and research at global, regional and country levels using data reported by over 200 countries that account for more than 99% of the world's TB cases. In this 2015 edition, particular attention is given to assessment of whether 2015 global TB targets set in the context of the Millennium Development Goals were achieved worldwide and at regional and country levels. The four annexes of the report include an explanation of how to access and use the online global TB database, one-page profiles for 22 high TB-burden countries, one page regional profiles for WHO’s six regions, and tables that show estimates and data for key indicators for all countries for the latest year.

  • WHO Global Health Observatory (GHO) data on Tuberculosis

    WHO data repository, statistics, map and standards on TB. Snapshots: An estimated 550 000 children became ill with TB and 80 000 children who were HIV-negative died of TB in 2013. It ranks as the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 9 million people fell ill with TB in 2013, including 1.1 million cases among people living with HIV. In 2013, 1.5 million people died from TB, including 360 000 among people who were HIV-positive. 510 000 women died from TB in 2013, including 180 000 among women who were HIV-positive. Of the overall TB deaths among HIV-positive people, 50% were among women. TB is one of the top killers of women of reproductive age. Global situation and trends:Tuberculosis (TB) is contagious and airborne.

  • Male Circumcision Significantly Reduces Prevalence and Load of Genital Anaerobic Bacteria

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable. Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. IMPORTANCE The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision.

  • Financing the Response to HIV in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: International Assistance from Donor Governments in 2014'

    This report, Financing the Response to AIDS in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: International Assistance from Donor Governments in 2014, tracks funding levels of the donor governments that collectively provide the bulk of international assistance for AIDS through bilateral programs and contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The analysis finds that donor government funding for HIV in low- and middle-income countries grew by less than 2 percent, totaling US$8.64 billion in 2014. This report provides the latest data available on donor funding disbursements based on data provided by governments. It includes their bilateral assistance to low- and middle-income countries and contributions to the Global Fund as well as UNITAID.

  • Tuberculosis in the workplace: developing partnerships with the garment industries in Bangladesh

    Assessment of public-private partnerships to address TB among factory workers in Bangadesh. Findings show this is a successful model.

  • The Paradigm Shift: The Global Plan to end TB

    A report by StopTB Partnership, which covers impact modelling, key populations, partnerships and new tools.

  • A global framework for TB research

    WHO aims at empowering high burden, low- and middle-income countries to develop a strong and self-sustained TB research community. This is needed to reach the ambitious targets set by the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. WHO references the need for new tech, point-of-care diagnostics for infection and disease, shorter regimens for infection and disease, and an effective vaccine.

  • Yegii’s Ebola Survey 2015: Attitudes to Ebola in the US, Europe and Asia

    Yegii’s Ebola Survey 2015: Attitudes to Ebola in the US, Europe and Asia finds that (1) The public does not feel well informed, (2) There is a global leadership and investment gap, (3) The outbreak affects people’s willingness to spend time with Africans, and (4) People are affected by the disease but don’t feel personally vulnerable. The online survey was launched between the 5th and 18th December 2014 and was administered through Amazon Mechanical Turk . A total of 801 valid responses were included in the final dataset. Yegii, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and Qplan, a Greek small-and-medium enterprise, is behind the survey and paid for the data collection.

  • A cost-benefit analysis of scaling up tuberculosis control in India.

    The study carries out a systematic analysis to measure the economic costs and benefits of scaling up tuberculosis (TB) control under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in India.

  • TB India RNTCP Annual Status Report

    2015 Annual Performance Report on the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in India. Provides a yearly snapshot on the TB demographics, Programs, Funding sources, Recommendations, and Next Steps in address TB from the Indian Government.

  • United States Government Global Tuberculosis Strategy

    A report by USAID on its strategic framework for addressing TB globally (including TB interventions and measuring success)

  • Synthesis report of the Rapid Assessment of Adolescent and HIV Programme Context in Five Countries: Botswana, Cameroon, Jamaica, Swaziland and Zimbabwe

    This report is intended to support government technical specialists, development partners, civil society organizations and adolescent and youth groups considering or planning a country rapid assessment on adolescents and HIV. The report aims to help this audience: 1. Understand the data-driven planning process that was used in Botswana, Cameroon, Jamaica, Swaziland and Zimbabwe to help prioritize adolescent populations, programme interventions and priority geographic areas to accelerate HIV results in adolescents. 2. Identify and discuss key programmatic and other contextual and cross- sectoral challenges and coverage gaps in the delivery of results for adolescents in HIV and related sectors. 3. Understand the cross-sectoral opportunities and linkages to health, education, protection and other relevant areas identified in the five countries as strategic platforms for leveraging improved HIV results in adolescents.

  • Adolescent Girls & Young Women: Key Populations for HIV Epidemic Control

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-science of HIV prevention in young women and adolescent girls to inform policy and research direction. Specifically, we aim to (1) summarise the various behavioural and biological factors that predispose adolescent girls and young women to HIV infection, (2) briefly review the evidence from previous HIV prevention interventions targeted toward adolescent girls and young women, and (3) discuss future directions for HIV prevention in adolescent girls and young women.

  • TUBERCULOSIS

    This report provides a good overview of technology and market landscape of diagnostics(including currently available and pipeline technologies)

  • Addressing HIV risk in adolescent girls and young women

    Summary of where we stand with aids and adolescent girls. Sketches recommendations and a way forward.

  • Diary- by Paul Farmer

    Paul Farmer is a medical anthropologist/physician who clearly and poignantly articulated the links between 'structural violence' and poor health. He began his critical global health career in Haiti, which is the ideal location to actually 'see' how the political and economic decisions made by the US and France translate into devastating health status for Haitians, hence 'structural violence'. The knowledge asset proposed reflects Farmer's recent work in West Africa to collaborate with West Africans on erecting a human rights, community-informed ebola response. I base my suggestion that we work at the household and community level to stop the Ebola outbreak is repeated here: "Transmission is person to person, and in the absence of an effective medical system, it occurs wherever care is given: in households, clinics and hospitals, and where the dead are tended." I also like this piece because it pushes back against the geographic racism that underpins the rich world's response to the Ebola crisis. And, it positions West Africans' skepticism and distrust of 'external experts' within a historical legacy of exploitation and oppression.

  • World Economic Forum-India Business Alliance

    It provides information India Business Alliance, developed by Global Health Initiative of the World Economic Forum. The document includes information on 4 partners and 32 companies that were part of the alliance as of 2006.

  • Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India

    This study explores decision makers’ perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a “third programme” for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers’ perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher–policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  • TB Diagnostics Market in Select High-Burden Countries:Current Market and Future Opportunities for Novel Diagnostics

    A report on need for market opportunity information, levels of healthcare system and a methodology for assessing new market opportunity for TB diagnostics in high-burden countries: India, Brazil, China and South Africa. It also includes country-specific summary for new diagnostics

  • Socio-economic dimensions of tuberculosis control: review of studies over two decades from Tuberculosis Research Center.

    Tuberculosis (TB) affects the most productive age group and the resultant economic cost for society is high. Even though diagnostic and treatment services under TB control are offered free of cost, TB patients do incur out of pocket expenditure. Tuberculosis Research Centre under took a series of studies on economic aspects of TB. We interviewed TB patients enrolled under TB control programme in south India, and assessed the following: socio-economic status of patients (SLI - standard of living index) and economic impact on patients, families both before and after Revised TB Control Programme (RNTCP) and the impact of parental TB on children. In addition patient's perceptions of physical, mental, social well being during and after completion of treatment were also elicited. A TB patient incurs out of pocket expenditure of Rs 5986 amounting to about 13,000 crores a year for the country; 11% of children dropped out of school on account of parental illness and 20% of the children had to take up employment in order to supplement income especially if the father had TB. About 64% of TB patients registered under RNTCP were poor (low SLI). The provider cost to treat a TB patient under RNTCP was Rs 1587/- for Category I, Rs 1924/- for Category II and Rs 1417/- Category III. At the end of treatment even though 47% of patients continued to have respiratory symptoms, 54% of patients perceived 'happy mental status'. Majority of the patients registered under RNTCP were poor. Patients' and provider costs and the impact on patients including families on account of TB were enormous. About half of TB patients, despite completing treatment successfully had persistent respiratory ill health resulting in frequenting health facilities. This information is vital for programme planners indicating that the existing control programs have been ineffective. To achieve success in control programs, the existing ones should be amended as there is evolution of resistance in the parasite as well as the vector. Public health education, to make the people aware about preventive aspects of the disease is important. The possibility of the existence of animal reservoirs should also be considered and checked out for better control measures.

  • Accelerating Universal Access to Early and Effective Tuberculosis Care

    This website provides information on the "Accelerating Universal Access to Early and Effective TB care" a project initiated by World Bank to address TB in India. The objective of the Accelerating Universal Access to Early and Effective Tuberculosis (TB) Care Project is to support the aims of India's national strategic plan for tuberculosis control to expand the provision and utilization of quality diagnosis and treatment services for people suffering from tuberculosis. There are three components to the project, the first component being new strategies to reach more tuberculosis patients with earlier and more effective care in the public and private sectors. The second component is the scale-up and improves diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Finally, the third component is to expand public tuberculosis services integrated with the primary health care system. This component will focus on expanding and improving public sector TB services increasingly integrated with the government primary health care system. The IDA credit will finance activities at the national level, including for technical assistance, diagnostics, anti-TB medicines and other eligible expenditures, contributing to the following

  • India's Healthcare Industry

    This book analyzes the historical development and current state of India's healthcare industry. It describes three sets of institutions that deliver healthcare services, finance these services, and manufacture products used in these services. Authors have background from Wharton, the US business school.

  • Assessment of the Risk of Ebola Virus Transmission from Bodily Fluids

    EBOV is shed in a wide variety of bodily fluids during the acute period of illness but that the risk of transmission from fomites in an isolation ward and from convalescent patients is low when currently recommended infection control guidelines for the viral hemorrhagic fevers are followed. The finding of EBOV in breast milk raises the possibility of direct mother-to-child transmission. Zaire EBOV has been detected in the semen of convalescent patients by virus isolation (82 days) and RT-PCR (91 days) after disease onset.

  • Kenya Fast Track Plan to End Adolescent HIV

    This fast-track plan recommends evidence-informed combination approaches to achieve the set goals. It prioritizes and defines specific interventions that are expected to produce the highest returns on investment if implemented on scale. Thus, this plan does not attempt to capture and recommend all HIV interventions for this population, but instead utilizes a population location risk approach to prioritize interventions. This plan outlines service packages tailored to population and age groups and prioritizes strategies that will facilitate an enabling environment and address structural challenges to the response. An advocacy plan will be critical to sustaining the fast-track momentum. It outlines targets for different sectors and counties that are required to achieve the national aggregate objectives of this plan.

  • Kenya HIV Prevention Revolution Roadmap

    Kenya has made significant progress in HIV prevention especially among children. However the reduction of new HIV infections among adults has been relatively slow. This HIV Prevention Road Map therefore draws from lessons learned on strategies, interventions and scientific development in HIV prevention globally. It provides guidance on how the country can accelerate and achieve a drastic reduction in new HIV infections in a manner which is evidence-informed, rights-based and gender sensitive. The process of developing this Road Map included review of globally available and accepted evidence of what works in HIV prevention, stakeholders’ consultation and policy review processes. This document provides targets and milestones that set Kenya on a clear path towards the goal of Zero new HIV infections.

  • What does not work in adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a review of evidence on interventions commonly accepted as best practices.

    Youth centres, peer education, and one-off public meetings have generally been ineffective in facilitating young people's access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, changing their behaviours, or influencing social norms around adolescent SRH. Approaches that have been found to be effective when well implemented, such as comprehensive sexuality education and youth-friendly services, have tended to flounder as they have considerable implementation requirements that are seldom met. For adolescent SRH programs to be effective, we need substantial effort through coordinated and complementary approaches. Unproductive approaches should be abandoned, proven approaches should be implemented with adequate fidelity to those factors that ensure effectiveness, and new approaches should be explored, to include greater attention to prevention science, engagement of the private sector, and expanding access to a wider range of contraceptive methods that respond to adolescents’ needs.

  • Major Trends and Attractions in the Global Aged Care Market

    Frost & Sullivan's own summary: "The world is moving from "sick care" to "healthcare" and this trend has the made aged care market one of the most challenging and attractive markets in 2015. This market not only requires service providers who can run short-term and long-term care homes but also offers integrated opportunities for medical technologists like ICT and robotics companies, senior care furniture manufacturers, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical manufacturers, and real estate companies besides other supporting services. Older people today are healthier, wealthier, and more active than in the past, making them a huge resource that countries must not waste. The market is growing, as nations are greying faster."

  • Pepfar 3.0 Controlling the Epidemic: Delivering on the Promise of an HIV Free Generation

    PEPFAR is heading into what may be its most challenging, but exciting, phase yet—Phase III focusing on Sustainable Control of the Epidemic. To reach the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS’ (UNAIDS) ambitious 90-90-90 global goals: 90 percent of people with HIV diagnosed, 90 percent of them on ART and 90 percent of them virally suppressed by 2020—we have to shift the way we do business.We can best control the epidemic by pivoting to a data-driven approach that strategically targets geographic areas and populations where we can achieve the most impact for our investments. As stated in the 2012 PEPFAR Blueprint for Creating an AIDS-free Generation, we need to go where the virus is—targeting evidence-based interventions for populations at greatest risk in areas of greatest HIV incidence

  • Paper-Based Synthetic Gene Networks

    Research out of Harvard detailing paper based testing for Ebola. Potential commercially available cell-free systems are freeze dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile, and abiotic distribution of synthetic-biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research, and education.

  • On the Quarantine Period for Ebola Virus

    Pathogens that have a high degree of transmissibility and/or a high degree of severity, the quarantine time should be greater than for agents with lower transmissibility and/or severity. The purpose of this paper is not to estimate where the balancing point should be, but to suggest a method for determining the balancing point.

  • Health workers need optimal respiratory protection for Ebola

    On the basis of epidemiologic evidence, it has been presumed that Ebola viruses are transmitted by contaminated hands in contact with the mouth or eyes or broken skin or by splashes or sprays of body fluids into these areas. Ebola viruses appear to be capable of initiating infection in a variety of human cell types but the primary portal or portals of entry into susceptible hosts have not been identified.

  • Towards an improved investment approach for an effective response to HIV/AIDS.

    Framework incorporates major efficiency gains through community mobilisation, synergies between programme elements, and benefits of the extension of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission. It proposes three categories of investment, consisting of six basic programmatic activities, interventions that create an enabling environment to achieve maximum effectiveness, and programmatic efforts in other health and development sectors related to HIV/AIDS.

  • Invitation to manufacturers of ebola virus in vitro diagnostics

    WHO published document requesting EOI (expression of interest) from manufactures of rapid testing devices capable of screening for the Ebola virus disease.

  • Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections — NEJM

    Complete analysis of EVD by the numbers in West Africa. The data outlined in this report indicate that without drastic improvements in control measures, the numbers of cases of and deaths from EVD are expected to continue increasing from hundreds to thousands per week in the coming months.

  • Kenya Aids Strategic Framework

    This Strategic Framework focuses on leadership in the HIV response. It emphasises an equitable HIV response that ensures no one is left behind. This is a priority for Kenya to achieve her goals. It promotes calibration of our efforts through effective prioritisation of interventions. It focuses on effective evidence-based investments, which target priority populations while ensuring that all Kenyans are reached and stigma and discrimination are reduced for improved health outcomes. This Strategic Framework is aligned to the Constitution of Kenya, the Vision 2030, and the African Union goals on HIV control. It recognizes the centrality of a multi-sectoral response to HIV and outlines roles and expected actions from different sectors and actors. A co-ordination and governance structure, led by the NACC, takes cognisance of Devolution and functions of different levels of Government, roles of other Government Ministries and Agencies and the need for strengthened stakeholder accountability for results. The Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework (KASF) 2014/15-2018/19, is the Strategic guide for the country’s response to HIV at both national and county levels. The framework addresses the drivers of the HIV epidemic and builds on achievements of the previous country strategic plans to achieve its goal of contributing to the country’s Vision 2030 through universal access to comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment and care.

  • Inside Wearables:How the Science of Human Behavior Change Offers the Secret to Long-Term Engagement

    This white paper is the first in a series that addresses critical strategic issues in wearable devices and services, the factors that are significant contributors to long-term success, how to design workable business models to create and capture value, and future opportunities in this space.

  • Understanding the link between Gender Inequality and HIV/AIDS

    HIV/AIDS is one of the infectious diseases that has disproportionally affected women. This paper links socio-cultural and economic gender inequalities, and proximate determinants of HIV infection (knowledge, access to health services, and modification of risky behavior to increase women’s risk of HIV transmission) which has important bearing on both men and women’s health outcomes. Women are not mere spectators passively carrying the brunt of HIV/AIDS transmission but rather are active agents who cautiously negotiate with the existent gender norms within socially acceptable boundaries and garner economic resources to protect themselves from the epidemic.

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